The Center for Energy Efficient Materials occupies approximately 3,000 square feet of assignable space in Phelps Hall. This space houses the Administrative offices of the Center, including offices for the Director, the Executive Director, the Financial Analyst, visiting scientists, and a number of post-docs, graduate students and undergraduate students. Two small seminar rooms are also included. The Institute for Energy Efficiency is co-located on the same floor, providing close interaction between the two entities. The College of Engineering at UCSB has recently initiated a planning process to build a new 35,000 assignable square foot building to house the Center and the Institute. It is intended that this new building be a Platinum LEED certified energy efficient building that will incorporate many state-of-the-art energy efficient features.
Nanotech Nanofabrication facility: Microfabrication pattern definition by either optical (>0.5 μm minimum feature size) or direct-write electron beam (<25 nm minimum feature size) lithography is available at the NNUN. The NNUN tool set includes several reactive-ion etching systems, used for pattern transfer and deep etch. For device processing the clean room houses a variety of RIE etching systems and a focused Ion Beam (FIB) system. Mask aligners, ebeam and other lithographic systems are also in place.
CEEM Thermoelectrics Characterization Laboratory: This joint facility was constructed with CEEM funding and is shared by six faculty members doing research in thermoelectrics. It is capable of measuring thermoelectric materials from low temperatures (4K) to high temperatures (1100 K) in two systems.
Si MEMS/NEMS: The new MEMS clean room includes photo resist processing equipment and five wet benches with hoods for chemical cleaning and etching. The clean room also is the home for a new threetube, oxidation furnace; one furnace tube can be used to grow very thick (10 – 20mm) layers of silicon dioxide, which are used to make planar optical wave guides and thick masking layers. All the equipment in the new clean room can handle up to 8” diameter wafers. This capability supplements the NNUN facility and is useful for silicon solar cell processing.
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Lab: The MBE lab currently contains 13 MBE systems, capable of growing a wide variety of semiconducting and metallic materials. Three of the systems are already equipped with elemental rare-earth sources and are capable of growing nanostructured semiconducting thermoelectric composite materials. The MBE systems also include advanced in-situ ultrahigh vacuum characterization capabilities, including scanning probe microscopy, and Auger and xray photoelectron spectroscopies.
MOCVD Labs (Engineering II): The laboratory has five MOCVD systems that support seven growth reactors. Five of the reactors are used for group III nitrides; one is used for semiconducting oxides and the other for classical III-Vs. The Laboratory also houses two hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) for group III nitride growth. The laboratory is also home to four blast-resistant containment systems that can each house three to four ammonothermal reactors for bulk GaN growth.
SSLEC Packaging Laboratory: The SSLEC (Solid State Lighting and Energy Center) packaging lab is capable of die separation for LEDs and lasers by both a thin and scribe technique and also direct dicing via saw. Individual die are contacted with gold wire on header via wire bonding on a West Bond ball bonder. A variety of molds and standard headers allow for traditional and customized encapsulation geometries in either silicone or epoxy. Optical performance measurements for LEDs, under pulsed and DC conditions, are performed in an Instrument Systems integrating sphere connected to a MAS 40 Spectrometer. On wafer and unencapsulated die can be measured for thermal droop and polarization ratiom on other test setups in the packaging lab. 36
Laboratory Facilities in Elings Hall (California NanoSystems Institute):
• Comprehensive Materials Characterization Laboratories, administered either by the Materials Research Laboratory or the Materials Department, including X-ray diffraction, a polymer characterization facility, an extensive spectroscopy facility including capabilities for liquid and solid state NMRs (200 MHz, 300 MHz, and two 500MHz).
• Microscopy and Microanalysis Lab: Currently, the facility has two multipurpose 200 kV TEMs which include full cryotransfer stages for soft materials and microanalysis capabilities; a 300 kV FEI Titan TEM with EDS and EELs; two FEI field emission SEMs; an a new FEI W filament SEM for semiconductor characterization that hosts the cathodoluminescence/EBIC system acquired with CEEM funds; two FEI focused ion beam systems, a Kratos XPS system, a Phi SIMS system, a Cameca/Imago atom probe system, and four atomic force microscopes.
• Chemical Nanostructures Laboratory: The laboratory includes Spin Coating and microwave reactor systems, capabilities for UV Photopolymerization and Organic Nanoparticle synthesis, a High Pressure Parr system for Inorganic Nanoparticle synthesis, a variety of material processing and characterization capabilities.
• Biological Nanostructures Laboratory: This laboratory is being developed to provide the research community with access to biological building blocks such as DNA, RNA, peptides, and cells. As well, this laboratory will make available commonly utilized analysis and purification capabilities. Equipment is being installed to allow cell culture, high-throughput DNA sequencing, and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA)
• Molecular Nanofabrication Facility: This facility is developing next-generation nanofabrication capabilities that integrate new approaches of ‘self-assembly’ and biological and chemical templating, as well as allowing the fabrication of hybrid systems incorporating ‘standard’ electronic and photonic components and materials with biological and chemical analytes and components.
• High Performance Computing Facility: CNSI maintains four substantial computing clusters for large scale calculations, and provides assistance in compiling and optimizing programs. One is a fast Ethernet cluster with 96 nodes (3.2 GHz Pentium 4 processors with 2GB of RAM). A 1.2 Terabyte storage array is attached to the head node for data storage. This cluster primarily supports single processor batch jobs, but can also accommodate MPI parallel jobs. A second is a parallel cluster designed to run multi-processor jobs using MPI libraries and Infiniband for high-speed interprocessor interconnects. This cluster has 64 dual-processor nodes using AMD 246 processors, with 2GB of RAM each. A 2.2 Terabyte storage array is attached.
Center for Polymers and Organic Solids (CPOS) Facilities: There are two solar cell and LED test stations, thermal evaporators, and spin coaters enclosed in two connected gloveboxes. Connected to these glove-boxes is a laminar flow hood with a spin coater, UV-Ozone cleaner, and a vacuum oven for substrate cleaning and sample preparation. Solar simulation optical sources, current/voltage measurements, and electroabsorption measurements are also available within the glove box environment. Additionally, the center has a steady state and ultrafast spectroscopy facilities for optical characterization.
Campus Shops. The Departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Physics at UCSB maintains both electrical and machine shops for fabrication of devices and instrumentation on a recharge-for-service basis. Chemistry, biology, and physics stockrooms are available for purchase of routine supplies/consumables. A glass shop is available in the Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry for construction of custom glassware.
Material structural analysis techniques include AFM, STM, SEM, and XRD. Optoelectronic measurements include time resolved photoluminescence, near-field scanning optical microscopy, time-of-flight mobility, and the TRMC technique. Device fabrication facilities include spincoating, ultrasonic spray coating, ink-jet printing, all in air as well as glove-box integrated spin-coating, 37 ultrasonic spray coating, ink-jet printing and thermal deposition equipment; device characterization facilities consist of a solar simulator and external quantum efficiency setup inside a glove-box, a userfacility Spectrolab XT-10 solar simulator, as well as a Spectrolab X-25 solar simulator within the Measurements and Characterization division at NREL, which provides fully certified measurements. Additionally, NREL will soon have an atmospheric processing tool online that will allow for materials characterization, materials deposition through solution and vacuum processes, and device fabrication inside of an inert atmosphere. This system will have an ink-jet printer that will allow for multiple materials to be co-deposited. Finally, the NREL OPV group will soon have the capability to study degradation mechanisms in OPV devices using our parallel combinatorial degradation setups one of which is in air and the other in inert atmosphere. NREL is also equipped to fabricate and characterize IIIV materials and multijunction cells. Fabrication tools include two stand-alone MOVPE growth systems configured to grow complex arsenide-phosphide structures with a wide range of dopants. There is also a “cluster tool” consisting of an MOVPE system and MBE system, and a characterization chamber (STM, LEED, AES) all connected with in-situ transfer of samples among these three stations; these two growth systems are configured to grow arsenide phosphides. Finally there is a second MBE chamber configured to grow InGaN. The cluster-tool MBE chamber and one of the stand-alone MOVPE systems are fitted with in-situ optical characterization of epilayer strain. Ex-situ characterization capabilities include reciprocal-space mapping with a high-resolution x-ray diffraction instrument, as well as electrochemical dopant profiling and spectral response measurements of epilayers. Device capabilities include e-beam metal deposition of photolithographically defined contacts, as well as deposition of ZnS/MgF2 antireflective coats. Device characterization includes the capability to measure quantum efficiency and illuminated current-voltage characteristics of multijunction cells as a function of cell temperature; the JV characteristics can also be measured as a function of illumination intensity (concentration).
LANL Computational Facilities:
The computational work at LANL is performed on the T-11 computer facility consists of a 16 node quad core (64 processors) cluster with 8 Gb of RAM running at 2.6 GHz. It is maintained by T-division technicians.